Phenomenology Online

A Resource for Phenomenological Inquiry

Freud, Sigmund (1856-1939) was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia (today Czech Republic). He studied in Vienna under Ernst Brucke, and then in Paris under Charcot; between 1882 and 1885 he worked in the Vienna General Hospital; Later he was worked as professor of neuropathology (1902-1938)in University of Vienna. Freud was forced to leave Vienna by Nazi regime in 1938 and lived in London from then on. Among his works are Studies on Hysteria (with Josef Breuer, 1985), The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1904) and Three Contributions to the Sexual Theory (1905), Totem and Taboo (1913), Ego and the Id (1923), New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1933), and Moses and Monotheism (1939).


Freud is considered generally as the founder of psychoanalysis. Freud was both a medical doctor and a philosopher. As a doctor, he was interested in charting how the human mind affected the body, particularly in forms of mental illness, such as neurosis and hysteria, and in finding ways to cure those mental illnesses. As a philosopher, Freud was interested in looking at the relationship between mental functioning and certain basic structures of civilization, such as religious beliefs. Freud believed, and many people after him believe, that his theories about how the mind worked uncovered some basic truths about how an individual self is formed, and how culture and civilization operate.