Phenomenology Online

A Resource for Phenomenological Inquiry

G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831) was born in Stuttgart, Germany in 1770. He studied theology at the University of Tubingen. After serving as a tutor at Bern and Frankfurt, he was a lecturer and then a professor at the University of Jena (1801-06), headmaster of a school in Nuremberg (1808-16), and professor at Heidelberg (1816-18) and Berlin (1818-31). He died in Berlin, during a cholera epidemic, on Nov. 14, 1831.


Hegel was an idealist philosopher who has influenced many areas of modern philosophy; his strongest influence was on Karl Marx, and he had a negative influence on Søren Kierkegaard, whose rebellion against his objective systematizing originated the school of existentialism. Hegel wrote books on philosophy, religion, and history. His most important works include the Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), the Science of Logic (1816), the Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1817), the Philosophy of Right (1821), and the Philosophy of History (from lectures in 1822), all of which has been translated in many languages.