Phenomenology Online

A Resource for Phenomenological Inquiry

Luce Irigaray was born in Belgium in 1930. She received a Master’s Degree from the University of Louvain in 1955. Soon after that, she taught high school in Brussels. In the early 1960s, Irigaray moved to France and received a Master’s Degree in psychology and a Diploma in Psychopathology and a Doctorate of Letters from the University of Paris in the subsequent years. In 1982, Irigaray held the chair in Philosophy at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. After working for a short period for the Fondation Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique in Belgium, she began to work at the National Center for Scientific Research in Paris where she is currently Director of Research in Philosophy.


Irigaray is well recognized as a French feminist philosopher. Early receptions of Irigaray in the English-speaking world often mistakenly labeled her an ‘essentialist.’ This view is now generally considered not accurate, as a better understanding has been gained of the complex linguistic, philosophical and psychoanalytic ideas she wrote. Irigaray is the author of Speculum of the Other Woman (1974) This Sex Which is Not One (1977), Amante Marine: de Friedrich Nietzsche (1983), L’Oubli de l’Air: Chez Martin Heidegger (1983), Ethique de la Difference Sexuelle (1984), Parler n’est jamais neutre (1985) and Sexes et Parentes (1987).